Local excision, resection, resection with a colostomy, and radiofrequency ablation are types of surgeries used to remove a colon tumor and treat colon cancer. The method used depends on how large and advanced the tumor is, explains the UCSF Center for Colorectal Surgery.
Doctors perform a local excision for early-stage tumors. Unlike many surgeries that require a large excision, a local excision does not require the doctor to cut through the abdominal wall. Instead, the doctor inserts a tube through the rectum and uses it to remove the cancer. During a resection, the doctor performs a partial colectomy in which the cancer is removed as well as a small amount of healthy tissue surrounding it. This method is only used when the cancer is large or too advanced for a local excision, states the UCSF Center.
Upon completion of a resection, the doctor sometimes sows the healthy parts of the colon back together, but if that is not possible, an opening is made on the outside of the body for waste to pass through. This procedure, known as a colostomy, is sometimes used as a temporary measure to allow the lower portion of the colon to heal, explains the UCSF Center. Radiofrequency ablation uses a probe with tiny electrodes to destroy cancer cells. The probe is inserted either through an incision in the abdomen or directly through the skin under local anaesthesia.