A urologist performs many procedures to diagnose and treat urological conditions including a urinalysis and cystoscopy, according to Laura Newman for About.com. Both of these are diagnostic procedures, although the cystoscopy is also a surgical procedure.
For a urinalysis, a patient urinates into a sterile cup, and then the urologist performs a series of tests, explains Newman. The urologist first looks at the urine to examine its color, density and clarity. There is also a laboratory examination of the urine that looks at any bacteria present, blood cells, protein, crystals or glucose. Normal, healthy urine does not contain these substances.
A urologist may also perform a cystoscopy, which is a surgical procedure to diagnose blood in the urine, bladder stones, bladder cancer or interstitial cystitis, states Newman. This is an outpatient surgery and requires local or general anesthesia. The urologist places a thin instrument called a cystoscope, which contains a camera or light, through the patient's urethra and into the bladder. When the cystoscope enters the bladder, the urologist inserts saline solution and medication, which help to inflate the bladder and prevent infection. The urologist can also insert other instruments through the cystoscope if necessary, and when the procedure is over, drains the fluid.