Medical professionals sometimes administer intravenous substances as a concentrated mass known as a bolus or push using a syringe, notes Healthline. Where patients require longer-term infusions, medical professionals may utilize peripheral venous catheters, which are generally referred to as intravenous lines. In situations where patients receive regular intravenous therapy for chemotherapy or other conditions, or where they are extremely sick, medical personnel typically use central nervous catheters, which are also known as central lines.
There are three ways of inserting central nervous catheters, explains eMedicineHealth. The first involves subcutaneous burrowing to reach the internal jugular vein, located in the neck, or the subclavian vein, which is situated below the collarbone. The section of the device that medical personnel use to draw blood or infuse medications remains outside the skin.
In the second method, physicians insert specialized lines known as peripherally inserted central catheters into a large vein in the arm and gently push it into the subclavian vein. In the third method, physicians place ports or reservoirs beneath the skin, states eMedicineHealth. Because the devices are completely covered by the overlying skin, medical personnel have to inject medicine using tiny needles.
A complication relating to intravenous administration includes infiltration; because of a poorly placed needle or angiocath, fluid escapes from the intravascular space to the surrounding soft tissue. Another complication is an air embolism, where a large quantity of air enters a patient’s vein through the intravenous administration equipment, reports Postdoctoral General Dentistry from Columbia University.