Types of eye surgery that are available are surgeries to correct refractive errors, such as LASIK, according to WebMD, corneal transplants and cataract surgery, according to Mayo Clinic. Other surgeries are glaucoma surgery and orbital surgery, notes UC David Health System.
LASIK, or laser in-situ keratomileusis, uses a laser to correct nearsightedness, farsightedness or astigmatism, says WebMD. The eye surgeon does this by very carefully mapping the eye and sculpting the cornea. This allows light to fall directly on the retina and sharpens the patient's vision.
PRK, or photorefractive keratectomy, also reshapes the cornea, explains WebMD. It differs from LASIK in that it uses a cool, ultraviolet laser light on the surface of the cornea. This avoids the need to make a flap in the cornea. LASEK, or laser epithelial keratomileusis, uses alcohol to loosen the epithelial cells in the eye before a laser is used to sculpt the cornea.
Corneal transplants replace a damaged cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped structure on top of the eye, says Mayo Clinic. Cataract surgery is done to remove a clouded lens of the eye.
Glaucoma surgery is used to reduce the intraocular pressure on the eye, says All About Vision. In time, this pressure can lead to blindness. Orbital surgery repairs trauma to the eye, according to UC Davis Health System.