Proton therapy generally treats tumors contained to a certain part of the body or tumors near important areas of the body, such as the eyes, brain or spinal cord, states Cancer.net. Examples of cancers treatable with proton therapy include cancer of the central nervous system, such as chordoma, chondrosarcoma and malignant meningioma, and eye cancer, such as uveal melanoma and choroidal melanoma.
Other types of cancer treated with proton therapy includes lung cancer, liver cancer, prostate cancer and cancer of the head and neck, including cancer of the nasal and sinus cavity, reports Cancer.net. Physicians also use proton therapy to treat noncancerous brain tumors and sarcomas, which is cancer found in the bone or soft tissue of the pelvis and spine.
Proton therapy may also treat lymphoma, mesothelioma, cervical cancer, breast cancer and gastrointestinal cancer, including cancer of the colon, kidneys, pancreas and esophagus, according to Roberts Proton Therapy Center at Penn Medicine. A physician may use proton therapy as a potential treatment method for pediatric cancer, cancers that are reoccurring, and cancers that surgery cannot completely remove from the body.
Proton therapy is especially beneficial in treating tumors with clearly defined boundaries, states MD Anderson Cancer Center. Proton therapy is similar to X-ray therapy, but it involves beaming protons directly to the site of the tumor instead of X-ray radiation.