Treatments for koilonychia include taking nutritional supplements, eating a special diet, and using anti-fungal creams or moisturizing emollients, explains Dr. Burton J. Katzen. The proper treatment depends on the underlying cause of the disorder.
Koilonychia, commonly referred to as spoon nails, is a condition in which a person's nail bed is flat or concave, and there are visible dips and waves on the nail's surface, notes Nails Magazine. Individuals with mild koilonychia have wavy nails, while more severe cases develop an indentation in the middle that is deep enough to hold a few drops of water at its center. The nail may also be split vertically in the center and the sides of the nail may flare out.
In the advanced stages of koilonychia, bacteria may lodge in cracked, open skin or a split nail, states Nails Magazine. This trapped bacteria or fungus may turn the area a shade of yellow or green.
Koilonychia is sometimes hereditary, and it's often seen in individuals with chronic anemia, Celiac disease or a nutrition-related disorder, according to Dr. Burton J. Katzen.
Hemochromatosis can also cause koilonychia, reports the Mayo Clinic. With this condition, a person's body absorbs too much iron from food. Hyperthyroidism can also sometimes cause koilonychia.