Depending on the patient's symptoms, the necessary treatment for a carotid artery aneurysm is either surgical repair or endovascular stent grafting, according to Cleveland Clinic. Surgical repair involves removal of the part of the carotid artery associated with the aneurysm, while endovascular stent grafting requires the use of catheters.
During a surgical repair, doctors perform a bypass after removing the part of the carotid artery related to the aneurysm, explains Cleveland Clinic. They use various conduits, such as a piece of vein from the leg or an artery from a certain part of the body. They may also use a prosthetic graft made of polyester.
Also called stent-graft, endovascular stent grafting involves surgery inside an artery, states Cleveland Clinic. Doctors use catheters to guide a stent-graft into the blood vessels and toward the area of aneurysm. They also use X-ray guidance to place an artificial graft at the site of aneurysm and then proceed to expand the graft inside the artery. They use metallic hooks to secure the graft in place.
Stroke or transient ischemic attacks are possible symptoms of carotid artery aneurysms, notes Cleveland Clinic. In some patients, an aneurysm leads to clots that obstruct blood flow to the brain, requiring immediate treatment. Other potential symptoms include swallowing trouble, hoarseness or facial swelling. In rare cases, carotid artery aneurysms become fatal when they break.