The treatment plan for hematuria, or blood in the urine, varies depending on the underlying cause, explains Mayo Clinic. Doctors commonly prescribe antibiotics when the underlying condition is a urinary tract infection, while shock wave therapy is useful for breaking down kidney stones or bladder stones that cause blood in the urine. If the cause is an enlarged prostate, the doctor may prescribe medication to shrink it. In some cases, hematuria resolves on its own and requires no treatment.
Other potential causes of hematuria include kidney infections, kidney disease, kidney injuries, sickle cell anemia and strenuous exercise, notes Mayo Clinic. Additionally, cancer of the prostate, kidney or bladder can cause blood in the urine, as can certain medications, such as penicillin, aspirin and blood thinners.
Doctors may diagnose the cause of urinary bleeding using a physical exam, urinalysis, imaging study or cystoscopy, states Mayo Clinic. A urinalysis is helpful for confirming the presence of blood cells in the urine as well as for detecting urinary tract infections and minerals involved in the formation of kidney stones. An imaging study, such as an MRI or CT scan, allows the doctor to check for visible abnormalities of the bladder or kidneys. During a cystoscopy, the physician inserts a small camera into the bladder to look for the cause of the hematuria. If all diagnostic tests come back normal, the doctor may request that the patient receive regular follow-up exams to monitor the urinary bleeding.