Renal cysts that cause no symptoms often don't require treatment, according to Mayo Clinic. Cysts are monitored for changes at regular intervals by imaging tests, such as ultrasounds. If treatment is required, cysts are either removed surgically or punctured and drained.
Laparoscopic surgery is typically used for renal cysts. Tiny incisions are made, and a small camera is inserted through the opening to guide the surgeon, explains Mayo Clinic. After the cyst is drained, the doctor cuts it out or burns it. Less frequently, the fluid is drained from the cyst after a needle is passed through the skin into the cyst. Renal cyst often come back after this procedure. To try to prevent this, the physician sometimes injects an alcohol solution into the cyst.
People are typically unaware that they have renal cysts due to a lack of symptoms, Cleveland Clinic states. Signs of cysts include frequent urination, bloody or dark urine, pain near the kidneys and fever. If symptoms are severe or if the cyst is affecting the kidney or other organs, treatment is needed.
Because they are often not problematic, kidney cysts are typically not diagnosed until a physician is investigating another disorder, Cleveland Clinic notes. The cysts become apparent with ultrasound tests or CT scans.