Doctors treat low white blood counts by treating the underlying cause, such as providing antibiotics for an infection, according to the Merck Manual Consumer Version. With this condition, infections can become serious or fatal quickly. While some cases of low white blood count resolve on their own, requiring no treatment, others are treated by stopping the use of some medications or by the use of colony stimulating factors to encourage the growth of new white blood cells.
Neutrophils are a type of white blood cells that account for 45 to 75 percent of the white blood cells in the human body. They provide defense against bacterial and viral infections. The risk of infection increases when the count drops below 1,000 per microliter. Below 500 neutrophils per microliter, the risk of infection increases greatly and the patient requires treatment, according to the Merck Manual Consumer Version.
In order to diagnose a white blood count, the doctor orders a complete blood count, states the Merck Manual Consumer Version. In patients receiving cancer treatment, doctors often expect the issue and know its cause. However, if there is no apparent cause of the low cell count, they look for hidden infections or exposure to toxic substances. They may take a bone marrow sample for use in determining the cause.