The best treatment for a low sodium level depends on the underlying cause of the abnormality, according to Healthline. Low sodium levels are linked to dehydration, kidney failure, hypothyroidism, Addison's disease, and other problems with the kidneys and adrenal glands.
Reducing fluid intake is sometimes enough to restore sodium levels to normal, notes Mayo Clinic. In people who use diuretics, which eliminate excess sodium and fluid, reducing the dosage helps keep sodium levels within the normal range. Severe sodium deficiency requires treatment with intravenous medications.
The medical term for a low sodium level is hyponatremia, states Mayo Clinic. If too much fluid builds up in the body, the excess fluid dilutes the sodium in the bloodstream, resulting in a low sodium level. Dehydration causes low sodium levels by resulting in the loss of electrolytes from the body.
The adrenal glands are responsible for producing hormones that regulate the amount of sodium and fluid in the body, reports Mayo Clinic. In people with Addison's disease, the adrenal glands do not produce the right amounts of these hormones, resulting in fluid buildup. Too much anti-diuretic hormone also results in fluid buildup, leading to low sodium levels. Anti-diuretic hormone prompts the body to retain water instead of excreting it. Any medication that increases perspiration or urination can also cause sodium levels to drop below normal.