As of 2015, chronic renal insufficiency has no cure, so doctors treat the symptoms and underlying complications, such as high blood pressure and fluid retention, MedlinePlus states. For example, doctors may prescribe a special diet that increases calorie intake while restricting sodium, protein, potassium, phosphorus and fluids. Some patients receive inhibitor drugs that regulate the hormone angiotensin to prevent blood pressure from dropping below 130/80 millimeters of mercury.
Chronic renal insufficiency, commonly known as chronic kidney disease, impairs the body’s ability to remove waste, leading to fatigue, vomiting, fluid retention and changes in appetite, according to Mayo Clinic. Depending on its location, fluid buildup can threaten the lungs and heart, and many people experience fluctuations in urine output. If retention causes swelling and high blood pressure, doctors use diuretic medications to stabilize the amount of fluid in the body and conduct periodic blood tests to catch problems early. Hormone supplements containing erythropoietin relieve symptoms of anemia, while vitamin D or calcium supplements strengthen the bones to prevent dangerous fractures.
To help patients avoid heart disease and stroke, doctors recommend lifestyle and dietary changes, such as abstaining from smoking and reducing unhealthy fat and cholesterol intake, MedlinePlus explains. Doctors may also prescribe drugs to prevent high cholesterol and help patients monitor their blood sugar levels. Under professional guidance, patients may start an exercise regimen if they are capable of handling physical activity.