Chills without a fever are usually a sign that a fever will occur shortly and one of the best ways to treat this symptom is by giving the child medication such as acetaminophen, as noted by National Institutes of Health's MedlinePlus. Chills occur because the body is trying to cool itself down and are caused by the relaxation and contraction of muscles.
If children do develop a fever with their chills, it is important to not bundle them in blankets or heavy clothing because it can make the chills or fever worsen. Sponging the child's body with warm water may help to reduce their fever and chills. Drinking cold water during a fever or chills is not recommended because this can lower the body temperature, causing the chills to get worse.
Chills occur commonly in children when they are sick because children are likely to develop higher fevers. Common causes of chills and fevers in children include colds, strep throat, urinary tract infections, meningitis, pneumonia and influenza.
Contacting a medical professional is necessary if the child experiences stiffness of the neck, confusion, a bad cough, shortness of breath, frequent urination or abdominal pain. It is also important to contact a medical professional if the child develops a fever of 103 degrees Fahrenheit, and it remains that high for approximately 1 to 2 hours after taking fever reducing medications.