Behavioral interventions such as Kegel exercises, double voiding, scheduled toilet trips and lowered fluid consumption can help treat a spastic or overactive bladder, according to Mayo Clinic. If these are not effective, a medicine that relaxes the bladder may be prescribed.
Severe incontinence can be treated with an injection of Botox into the bladder tissues, temporarily paralyzing the muscles for six to nine hours, reports Mayo Clinic. However, this treatment is not recommended because it can worsen an overactive bladder in the long-term, especially in the elderly or people with compromised immune systems. As a last resort, if a patient is not responsive to other treatments, a doctor can suggest surgery to increase the bladder's capacity or remove it entirely.
Caffeine and alcohol are both diuretics that worsen symptoms for some patients, according to Mayo Clinic. They may need to be avoided. A doctor may suggest losing weight to see if improvement occurs; overweight people are at increased risk of stress urinary incontinence. Finally, reducing fluid intake by 25 percent may see a reduction in symptoms.
People who suffer from overactive bladder may experience a sudden, difficult-to-control need to urinate and have immediate difficulty with incontinence, says Mayo Clinic. They may urinate frequently, at least eight times in a 24-hour period, and waken frequently during the night to urinate.