Dialysis or transplantation is used to treat a person with stage 4 kidney disease, according to the National Kidney Foundation. Peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis are the two kinds of dialysis therapies. Stage 4 kidney disease is an advanced stage of the condition. In this phase, the kidneys are damaged and are unable to filter the blood or balance the body's fluids.
The National Kidney Foundation states that, besides filtering the blood and balancing fluids, the kidneys also regulate the hormones and maintain blood pressure. The kidneys also assist in keeping the bones healthy and manufacture red blood cells.
According to the National Kidney Foundation, kidneys used in transplantation can either come from a donor who is living or from someone who has died. Medications are administered after the operation to prevent rejection of the new organ.
Hemodialysis, or HD, is also given to patients who have stage 4 kidney disease. The treatment, which removes the additional fluids and wastes that accumulate in the blood, is done at a dialysis center or at home. During the therapy, the blood is pumped through machine tubing and directed through a filter called a dialyzer, or artificial kidney. According to the National Kidney Foundation, the treatment generally takes place three times a week and lasts about four hours per session.
The National Kidney Foundation says that peritoneal dialysis, or PD, is a treatment option that can be done daily at home or at work. A catheter is placed in the stomach to cleanse the blood of waste. A cleansing solution, known as dislysate, is used in the filtering process.