As of 2015, a cure for Parkinson's disease has not yet been discovered, but treatment options focus on medications that help patients cope with the symptoms, such as carbidopa-levodopa, according to Mayo Clinic. This natural chemical converts to dopamine as it passes through the brain, helping control shaking, uncontrolled movements and seizures.
Dopamine agonists are also used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease, explains Mayo Clinic. These types of drugs mimic the dopamine activity and effects in the brain. Physicians may also recommend carbidopa-levodopa infusion, which involves administering medication through a feeding tube that transports the medication directly through the body to the small intestines. MAO-B inhibitors, which include medications such as selegiline and rasagiline, are used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease because the drugs inhibit brain enzymes that metabolize brain dopamine. Some patients experience insomnia or nausea as a side effect when taking MAO-B inhibitors.
Exercise is often recommended for patients who have Parkinson's disease, as movement may help slow down the deterioration of the body, according to the National Parkinson Foundation.
Patients who have exhausted medication options may opt for surgical treatments such as deep brain stimulation, thalamotomy, pallidotomy and subthalamotomy, explains the National Parkinson Foundation. Surgical treatment is often designated for patients who have not responded to medications for tremors or who have profound motor fluctuations.
Those with Parkinson's disease are encouraged to eat a diet rich in whole grains, fruits and vegetables, according to Mayo Clinic. The constipation associated with the disease can be addressed by drinking plenty of fluids and consuming foods rich in fiber.