According to WebMD, tooth pain that occurs when ingesting cold beverages is referred to as tooth sensitivity, which occurs when tooth dentin is exposed. Exposed dentin is caused by gum recession, tooth grinding, over-aggressive brushing and acidic beverages.
Colgate Professional explains that the underlying dentin of the tooth that surrounds the nerves is typically protected by enamel. Enamel wear occurs due to natural aging, acidic beverages and aggressive brushing. Chipped teeth and naturally receding gums can lead to underlying dentin exposure. Tooth sensitivity is often treated with prescription level fluoride toothpastes and fluoride varnishes. There are also over-the-counter toothpastes and rinses that are specifically designed to minimize sensitivity.