A split on the tongue is believed to be a normal variation of the tongue so there is no specific cause for it. This condition is referred to as a fissured tongue and a person can have one or more fissures on the tongue. A fissured tongue is harmless, but a doctor can be consulted for an official diagnosis if necessary, says WebMD.
A fissured tongue is characterized by grooves, cracks and grooves connecting with other grooves. A tongue may have several fissures, but all vary in depth and length. Fissures are not a symptom of any underlying problem unless there is a buildup of debris in them. This condition is more common in adults, but it may appear first during childhood. Fissures tend to become more pronounced as a person gets older.
There are certain health conditions that are associated with fissures, including geographic tongue, down syndrome and Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. About 2 percent to 5 percent of the U.S. population has a fissured tongue and it affects men more often than women, as stated by WebMD. This condition does not require treatment, according to Healthline. When a fissured tongue causes a problem, doctors will always advise a person to ensure good oral hygiene.