Causes of vomiting blood include gastritis, cirrhosis, stomach cancer, a stomach ulcer and esophageal cancer, according to Healthline. Throwing up blood can also be due to minor causes, such as swallowing the blood from a nosebleed or mouth injury.
Gastritis occurs when the lining of the stomach becomes inflamed, notes the Digestive Disease Center of the Medical University of South Carolina. The cause of gastritis is an imbalance in the gastric juices, leading to upper abdominal pain, vomiting with blood and nausea. The disease is either acute or chronic, and treatment involves over-the-counter medications, proton-pump inhibitors and antibiotics.
Cirrhosis is the last stage of chronic liver disease and means that the liver is scarred and does not function well, explains MedlinePlus. Chronic liver disease sometimes occurs as a result of alcohol abuse and hepatitis B or C infections, but autoimmune disorders, some medications and other disorders can cause it. Patients with cirrhosis experience weight loss, nausea, fatigue and spider-like blood vessels on the skin. Treatment for the condition involves lifestyle and dietary changes, vaccinations and medications. A liver transplant is often necessary if liver disease progresses.
Gastric cancer is the most common form of stomach cancer in the world and typically affects men over the age of 40, according to Healthline. Risk factors for developing stomach cancer include smoking, eating a diet high in smoked foods and a family history of stomach cancer. Symptoms of stomach cancer include dark stools, weight loss, weakness and vomiting blood. Surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are three treatment options for patients with stomach cancer, and prognosis varies depending on the severity of the cancer.