A thalamic hemorrhage or bleeding is a serious, life-threatening type of intracerebral hemorrhage. A thalamic stroke occurs when a blood vessel inside the thalamus suddenly ruptures. This causes bleeding that may also drain into the surrounding brain area.
The thalamus is important for processing and relaying information to the motor cortex for motor activity and is also a sensory relay center of auditory and visual input. All of its functions are carried through neuronal tracts. The signs of the hemorrhage appear in the contralateral side of the body with respect to the affected side of the thalamus. This is because only a specific region of the thalamus, rather than the whole thalamus, is damaged. There is a loss of sensory perception, proprioception and loss of motor control depending on the side of thalamic nuclei damaged.
The symptoms are elevated during physical activity compared to rest since blood pressure is higher when performing a physical exercise. High blood pressure results in increased cerebrospinal fluid in brain ventricles. As various parts of the thalamus have different arterial supply, hemorrhage occurs only in a specific part of the thalamus. The arteries get compressed due to the increased pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid. Another cause besides hypertension is stenosis of interventricular foramens.