Doctors use a transvaginal ultrasound to look at the texture and thickness of the endometrium, according to Mayo Clinic. The doctor uses a wand-type transducer inserted inside the vagina to produce sound waves, creating a picture of the uterus and enabling the doctor to examine the uterine lining for abnormalities.
Medical professionals generally look at the thickness and texture of the endometrium when ruling out or diagnosing endometrial cancer, notes Mayo Clinic. The doctor may also examine the endometrium using a scope during a procedure called a hysteroscopy. In the event the doctor sees an abnormality in the endometrium, the doctor performs an endometrial biopsy to remove a tissue sample for analysis in a laboratory.