Symptoms of renal insufficiency range from no symptoms at all to severe hypertension and kidney failure, states UC Davis Health System. Other symptoms of renal insufficiency include swelling or edema in the extremities, decreased urination, loss of appetite and nausea, according to WebMD.
Renal insufficiency, also known as chronic kidney disease, is a progressive disease, and it can take years for symptoms to develop, reports WebMD. Several things can contribute to the development of renal insufficiency, including hypertension, diabetes, recurrent kidney infections and the use of long-term anti-inflammatory medications, such as ibuprofen.
Doctors classify chronic kidney disease by stages, with each stage determined by the glomerular filtration rate, or a blood test to determine how well the kidneys process creatinine. Stage 1 chronic kidney disease is mild, with over 90 percent of normal kidney function, reports the National Kidney Center. A patient with a glomerular filtration rate between 40 percent and 59 percent receives a diagnosis of stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and a patient who has less than 15 percent of normal kidney function has end-stage, or stage 5, renal disease. Symptoms of stage 5 renal insufficiency include anemia, edema in the legs and feet, hypertension that may be severe, easy bruising, weakness and cognitive issues, such as trouble remembering common tasks and confusion, states the National Kidney Center.