Symptoms of renal or kidney disease include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, weakness and loss of appetite, according to Mayo Clinic. Additional symptoms resulting from kidney disease include swelling of the feet and ankles, chest pain when fluid builds around the heart, decreased urination, high blood pressure and decreased mental sharpness.
Many of the symptoms related to renal disease can also be caused by other illnesses, notes Mayo Clinic. Generally, symptoms occurring due to kidney disease signal irreversible damage. Causes of kidney disease include recurring kidney infections, diabetes, high blood pressure and prolonged obstruction of a person's urinary tract.
The role of the kidneys is to clean waste from the blood, assist in blood pressure regulation, and balance the amount of salt and minerals in the body, according to WebMD. A person with renal disease experiences a buildup of waste products and fluids in the body, often resulting in swelling. Without treatment, damaged kidneys can completely cease to function, which can result in death. Acute renal failure occurs when there is a lack of blood flow to the kidneys or direct damage to the kidneys occurs. This type of renal failure can occur due to an accident, dehydration, pregnancy complications or sepsis.