The most common symptom of renal calculi, or kidney stones, is severe pain in the side of the back and belly that comes and goes unexpectedly, according to MedlinePlus. The pain may radiate to the testicles and groin area.
Other symptoms of renal calculi include fever, chills, nausea, vomiting and bloody urine, notes MedlinePlus. Abnormal urine color may also occur. A person who experiences any of the symptoms, pain on urination or foul-smelling urine requires medical attention.
The doctor may physically examine the belly area or back to determine the cause and treatment for the condition, explains MedlinePlus. Blood tests, urinalysis, magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and kidney, abdominal CT scan, and ultrasound of the kidney may help provide diagnosis as well.
Treatment options for small stones include drinking more than six glasses of water every day to increase urine flow, taking medications that help to pass the stones and taking over-the-counter pain medications, such as ibuprofen, with or without narcotics, reports MedlinePlus. Taking intravenous fluids in the hospital may help counter severe pain. Surgical procedures, such as ureteroscopy, lithotripsy and, less frequently, nephrolithotomy, may be necessary if pain worsens, or if the stones are large, interfere with urination or cause an infection.