Symptoms of proteinuria include foamy urine and edema, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. However, some patients never have any symptoms, and a urine test is the only way to determine whether they have abnormal amounts of protein in their urine.
Early stages of proteinuria have no symptoms, according to the NIDDK. Some patients may experience symptoms like shortness of breath, trouble sleeping, dry and itchy skin, and nausea and vomiting, reports the National Kidney Foundation. Other symptoms include frequent urination, hiccups and fatigue.
An abnormally large amount of protein in the urine may make it appear foamy, explains the NIDDK. Another common symptom is edema, or swelling in the hands, abdomen, feet and face. This is a sign that the blood cannot soak in enough fluid due to massive protein loss, which is a symptom of kidney disease.
People who are at high risk of proteinuria, such as people with diabetes, and do not show symptoms should have frequent check-ups to determine the amount of protein in their urine, suggests the NIDDK. A test that determines the ratio of albumin to creatinine helps doctors to diagnose kidney disease before it causes extensive damage.