According to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, the symptoms of MS can be unpredictable and can vary greatly. In general, the most common symptoms include fatigue, walking difficulties, numbness in the face or the extremities, muscle spasms or weakness, vision problems, dizziness, bladder or sexual issues, and bowel problems.
Other symptoms of MS include pain, cognitive or emotional changes, depression, speech issues, swallowing problems, muscle tremors, seizures, breathing problems, itching, headaches, or hearing loss, according to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society. Any of the aforementioned symptoms can affect a patient with MS during flare ups. The symptoms are so widespread because MS affects the central nervous system and causes a disruption in the communication signals between the body and the brain.
The central nervous system is comprised of the brain and the spinal cord. With MS, patients develop lesions on parts of their central nervous system. These lesions form due to the immune system of the patient attacking the myelin sheaths that cover the nerve fibers in the central nervous system, according to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society. Once a lesion forms, a disruption in signals occurs in the central nervous system. Depending on the location of the lesion, the patient may feel a variety of symptoms.