Symptoms of manic depressive disorder include feelings of worthlessness, fatigue, restlessness and problems with decision making or concentration, states Healthline. Patients with mania may also experience extreme irritability, racing thoughts, sleeping problems and unrealistic beliefs about their abilities.
A manic depressive disorder can cause extreme mood swings, such as emotional lows, or depression, and emotional highs, which are hypomania and mania, reports Mayo Clinic. This condition is a long-term disorder, characterized by feelings of hopeless, loss of interest and full of energy. A manic depressive disorder can result in damaged relationships, trouble in school and poor job performance.
As of 2015, the cause of manic-depressive disorder is unclear, but the brains of patients with this condition tend to have physical changes, reports Mayo Clinic. This disorder is more prevalent in people whose close relative, such as a parent or sibling, have this condition, and an imbalance in neurotransmitters tends to contribute to manic depression.
Patients with manic depressive disorder are at a higher risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obesity and diabetes, says Healthline. During diagnosis, doctors ask patients about medical histories, symptoms and drug use, and perform laboratory tests to rule out other medical conditions. Treatment includes anti-seizure medications, such as lamotrigine and valproic acid; mood stabilizers, such as lithium; and anti-anxiety medications, such as benzodiazepine.