Individuals with low-sodium levels in their blood may feel weak, tired, irritable, restless and confused, according to MedlinePlus. They may also experience nausea, headaches, convulsions and appetite loss. Extremely serious cases of low blood sodium levels can lead to hallucinations, loss of consciousness, brain herniation, coma and death.
Low-sodium levels in the blood, a condition known as hyponatremia, occur when there is too much water and not enough salt in the body, states MedlinePlus. Causes of hyponatremia include widespread burn injuries, consumption of diuretics, diarrhea, vomiting and sweating. Health conditions such as heart failure, kidney diseases and liver diseases can also cause hyponatremia.
Blood and urine tests can help with the diagnosis of hyponatremia. It is important to investigate the underlying cause of hyponatremia and treat it accordingly, advises MedlinePlus. Meanwhile, to relieve symptoms of hyponatremia, the patient may receive intravenous fluids and medications. He may also have to restrict his water intake.
To help prevent low-sodium levels in the blood, individuals should drink enough water to rehydrate themselves but refrain from drinking excessive amounts of water, says Healthline. They should also drink electrolyte beverages instead of just plain water when they are losing significant amounts of water due to sports activities or conditions such as diarrhea.