Symptoms of a blood clot in the leg, or deep vein thrombosis, include pain and swelling in the leg with the clot, generally beginning in the calf and feeling like soreness or a cramp. In some cases, clots can occur without causing any observable symptoms, as stated by Mayo Clinic.
Some causes of deep vein thrombosis include a lengthy period of inactivity, such as after an operation or an accident, or any other time when one is limited to a bed or sedentary position in a nursing home, hospital or at home. Also, some medical conditions that influence the clotting process can lead to clots. This is a condition that requires medical attention because the clots can become loose, travel from the legs through the blood vessels and end up in the lungs, in a condition known as pulmonary embolism, notes Mayo Clinic.
When clots cause pulmonary embolism, some of the symptoms include coughing up blood, an elevated pulse, a dizzy sensation, fainting, extreme chest pain that gets worse when breathing or coughing, and a sudden instance of shortness of breath without any other explanation. People experiencing symptoms of pulmonary embolism should seek emergency medical attention as soon as possible, according to Mayo Clinic.
Risk factors for a blood clot include lengthy periods of bed rest, paralysis, recent injury or surgery, travel periods longer than four hours by car, plane, bus or train, and being overweight or obese, according to Mayo Clinic. For women, using hormonal birth control and carrying a pregnancy increase the risk for DVTs. Cancer, heart failure and inflammatory bowel disease are common diseases that also increase the risk for blood clots.