An enlarged bladder typically occurs as a result of blockage at the base of the bladder, says MedlinePlus. Symptoms of blockage include abdominal pain, frequent urination, inability to urinate, pain during urination, problems starting urination, slow urine flow, urinary tract infection, nocturia, fatigue, nausea and urinary intermittency.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH, or an enlarged prostate, can also cause an enlarged bladder, says The University of Maryland Medical Center. While the actual cause is unknown, aging and changes in cells of the testicles have been linked to development of BPH. Treatment of BPH varies depending on the age of the patient and severity of the symptoms. Typical options typically include waiting for symptoms to increase, making lifestyle changes, taking medication or undergoing surgery.
For mild symptoms, the UMMC recommends urinating at first urge and visiting the bathroom even when the need is not there. Alcohol and caffeine are to be avoided, especially after dinner. Fluids should not be consumed in large quantities and should be avoided entirely up to two hours before bedtime. Over-the-counter medicines that contain antihistamines and decongestants should be avoided as well, as they may exacerbate BHP symptoms. Exercising regularly, staying warm, reducing stress and performing kegel exercises can all help to relieve symptoms.