Endometriosis typically causes pelvic pain associated with a woman's menstrual period, according to Mayo Clinic. Other symptoms include painful intercourse, pain with bowel movements or urination, heavy periods, or infertility.
The cause of endometriosis is endometrium, which is the tissue that lines the uterus, growing outside of the uterus, according to Mayo Clinic. This displaced endometrial tissue most commonly affects the ovaries, bowel and pelvic region, but rarely it can spread beyond the pelvis. The severity of pain can be variable. Some women have little to no pain, while others have extreme pain. Other symptoms include fatigue, diarrhea or constipation, bloating and nausea.
Treatment for endometriosis can include both medication and surgery, depending on its severity, according to Mayo Clinic. Medications can include pain relievers, hormone blockers and hormonal contraceptives. Surgery can include just the removal of abnormal endometrial tissue, but it can be extreme enough to include the removal of the uterus, cervix and both ovaries.