Common symptoms of diabetic nephropathy include high blood pressure, leg cramps, nausea and vomiting, and weakness or paleness, according to the Cleveland Clinic. Some individuals may also experience ankle and leg swelling, frequent urination at night, itching and less need for anti-diabetic medications or insulin.
Patients with diabetic nephropathy typically have protein or albumin in their urine, high levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen and anemia, explains the Cleveland Clinic. Individuals suffering from diabetic nephropathy may also have difficulty sleeping and experience weight loss or a poor appetite, according to WebMD. In the early stages of diabetic nephropathy, symptoms may not exist; however, protein is often present in the urine when an infection, pregnancy or high fever occurs.
Diabetic nephropathy is a condition where urinary albumin excretions exceed 300 milligrams in a 24-hour period, according to the Cleveland Clinic. Patients have an increase in proteinuria and a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity.
The primary treatment for diabetic nephropathy is prevention methods to maintain glycemic control, explains the Cleveland Clinic. Doctors encourage patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes to follow strict diabetic meal plans, incorporate exercise into their daily routines, take medications as recommended and check blood sugar levels regularly.