Symptoms of chronic renal disease include headaches, weakness, fatigue, difficulty sleeping, urine changes, nausea, decreased appetite, weight loss and hiccups, Mayo Clinic states. Chest pain and shortness of breath, respectively, are symptoms of fluid accumulation around the lining of the heart or inside the lungs.
Chronic renal disease symptoms may not appear until late in the condition’s development, MedlinePlus warns. When symptoms do appear, the kidneys may sometimes be so damaged that they are nearly non-functional. Late-stage symptoms, occurring when kidney function has been severely impaired, include difficulty with sleeping, morning vomiting, blood in the stool, muscle twitching, difficulty with concentrating, bone pain, and skin that turns unusually light or dark.
Treatment options for chronic renal disease mainly consist of changing specific habits and regulating blood pressure, MedlinePlus explains. Helpful habits include avoiding foods high in fat and cholesterol, making sure salt and potassium intake is not excessively high, quitting smoking and exercising regularly. Treatment typically attempts to maintain blood pressure at 130/80 millimeters of mercury or less. Angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are the most common medications used in treatment. Additional treatment options include adding calcium, iron and vitamin D to the patient’s diet, as well as taking phosphate binders.