Some symptoms of bunions include difficulty moving the big toe, swelling of the big toe, pain that does not go away and thickening of the skin under the big toe. Bunions often form when the big toe points toward the second toe, notes MedlinePlus.
Some possible causes of bunions include inherited foot types, injuries, tight or high heeled shoes and foot disorders developed at birth. Bunions often develop when pressure is distributed unevenly on the tendons and joints of the feet. Bunion risk factors include wearing high heels, arthritis, heredity and injuries.
Doctors usually diagnose bunions by taking patient history, carrying out a physical examination of the foot and in certain cases ordering an X-ray test to determine the severity of the condition.
Individuals with this condition are likely to notice a bony bump at the affected region. The area affected often swells. Individuals are likely to feel painful sensations that get worse when pressure is exerted through wearing shoes or squeezing the foot. The big toe often bends towards the other toes and in some cases may cross over the second one.
Treatment of bunions depends on the severity and symptoms it causes, notes Mayo Clinic. Shoe inserts, medications, changing shoes and applying ice are among the most effective treatment options. In severe cases, doctors may treat the condition through surgery.