The symptoms of acute cytomegalovirus include fever, pneumonia, diarrhea and ulcers. The disease may attack the body's organs, causing hepatitis, vision loss, inflammation of the brain, seizures or coma. Healthy adults who contract CMV may show no symptoms or have mild symptoms, such as fatigue, fever or muscle aches. The disease is more dangerous in people with compromised immune systems and unborn children, states Mayo Clinic.
Patients with weakened immune systems who experience symptoms of CMV infection should seek medical care, warns Mayo Clinic. For these patients, especially if they are recovering from bone marrow or organ transplants, the disease is potentially fatal. Additionally, pregnant women who develop symptoms should seek evaluation and learn about the risks to their unborn children. If it is the woman's first CMV infection, there is a higher likelihood of transmission to her child. With a reactivated infection, there is less risk of passing it along during pregnancy.
Once a person contracts CMV, the virus remains in the body for life, states Mayo Clinic. In healthy people, the virus typically remains dormant, and many patients do not realize that they have it. The virus spreads through body fluids, such as blood, urine and semen. There is no cure for CMV, but there are medications to treat people with complications.