The survival rate for patients with aplastic anemia under age 20 who have a bone marrow or stem cell transplant is 80 percent, according to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. Stem cell and bone marrow transplants are most successful in young patients with blood-matched donors.
However, the two-year survival rate is only 20 percent for patients with severe aplastic anemia who do not receive stem cell or bone marrow transplants and receive only supportive care instead, as Patient explains. Some patients with mild symptoms and a non-severe case of the disease do not always require treatment. Elderly patients typically do not respond well to stem cell transplants.