According to MD Health, sunspots on the skin are caused by long exposure to the sun's harmful UV rays. Sunspots are a form of hyperpigmentation. In addition to sun exposure, factors that cause sunspots to form include yeast, aging, hypomelanosis, pitryiasis alba or fungus.
Premier Derm further explains that the hyperpigmentation is a result of an overproduction of melanin in the skin. Melanin is the pigment that produces skin color. Increased levels of melanin result in darker skin, eyes and hair. Unfortunately, the overproduction of melanin can be triggered by sun exposure or a hormonal imbalance. Sun exposure is the number one reason that people develop sunspots. Women are more susceptible to sunspots because of the hormone changes during puberty, pregnancy and menopause. Hyperpigmentation caused by hormones is referred to as melasma. Premier Derm recommends that people prone to sunspots wear hats or avoid going outside when the sun is highest in the sky.
Sunspots can be reversed or minimized with aloe vera, apple cider vinegar, tomato juice, vitamin E, kojic acid, laser removal or a chemical peel. Those who suffer from sunspots should wear sunscreen every day and avoid direct sunlight. MD Health says to be cautious when using acids to remove sunspots because the acid may burn the skin off.