Women with a stenotic cervix experience a narrowing or closing of the path through the cervix to the uterus, according to Merck Manual. Cervical stenosis can lead to infertility, or cause a back flow of menstrual blood into the pelvic cavity, sometimes causing endometriosis.
A variety of factors can lead to cervical stenosis, Merck Manual explains. Conditions that lead to stenosis include menopause, cancer of the endometrial or cervyx and their treatments, surgery on the cervyx, and endometrial ablation, a procedure that destroys the uterine lining. Some women are born with cervical stenosis.
Before menopause, women with cervical stenosis may experience no periods, painful periods or abnormal bleeding, states Merck Manual. Because sperm cannot reach the egg through the closed or narrowed cervical opening, some patients may experience infertility. If the uterus fills with blood or pus, common symptoms of cervical stenosis, the patient may experience pain or notice a lump from the full uterus bulging.
Doctors treat a stenotic cervix when patients experience symptoms, Merck Manual reports. Some menopausal patients have no symptoms.
The treatment for cervical stenosis centers around dilating the opening in the cervyx, notes Merck Manual. Doctors insert metal rods into the opening, starting with a small size and progressively increasing the width of the rod.