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What are the signs and symptoms of bone metastasis?

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Common signs and symptoms of bone metastasis include bone pain, arm or leg weakness, broken bones, bowel incontinence and urinary incontinence, explains Mayo Clinic. This condition can also result in hypercalcemia, or high levels of calcium in a patient's blood, which can then cause vomiting and confusion. Some patients with bone metastasis experience no obvious signs or symptoms at all.

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Bone pain is often the first symptom of bone metastasis, according to WebMD. Initially, the pain may be intermittent and usually worse at night, but movement eases it. As the disease progresses, the pain lingers and becomes constant. Because the disease weakens bones, it puts patients at risk for fractures, such as breaks in the arm, leg or spine. When bone metastasis reaches the spine, it puts pressure on the spinal cord and can cause urinary issues, numbness or paralysis.

Bones often release calcium into the bloodstream once cancer reaches them, according to the American Cancer Society. This leads to hypercalcemia, a disorder that causes extreme thirst, nausea, constipation and loss of appetite. The high levels of calcium in the bloodstream cause the body to produce more urine, eventually leading to dehydration. While hypercalcemia can cause feelings of sleepiness, fatigue and weakness, some patients go into a coma if the disorder does not receive treatment.

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