Signs of renal impairment include hand and foot swelling, loss of appetite, flank pain, anxiety and restlessness. Lack of urine despite an effort to urinate, nausea and vomiting also indicate renal failure. Additionally, confusion and constant sleepiness are other signs of renal impairment, according to WebMD.
Symptoms of renal impairment are a result of the accumulated waste products in the body. Renal failure leads to inability to expel potassium from the bloodstream. Accumulation of potassium in the bloodstream causes abnormal heart rhythm. Progressive renal impairment is irreversible and requires dialysis, as stated by MedicineNet.
Renal impairment is caused by kidney damage as a result of sudden reduction in blood flowing to the kidneys. Toxins, infection, and medications such as gentamicin and ACE inhibitors also cause kidney damage. Older people are particularly vulnerable to renal impairment. Health problems such as obesity, high blood pressure, liver disease and kidney disease predispose a person to renal impairment. Bone marrow transplant and heart surgery increase vulnerability to renal impairment, according to WebMD.
Fluid retention causes hand and feet swelling in patients with renal impairment. Severe renal impairment leads to a coma and seizures, and signs of renal impairment require immediate medical attention, states Mayo Clinic.