Chronic fatigue, difficulty breathing, nausea, inappetence and pale skin are warning signs of kidney disease, according to WebMD. Voiding small amounts of urine, swelling in the ankles, puffy eyes, leg cramps and breath that smells like urine are additional signs.
Sleep problems, decreased concentration and mental confusion, severe skin itching and hiccups are signs of kidney disease, states Mayo Clinic. If fluid collects around the lining of the heart, a person may experience chest pain. If fluid collects in the lungs, the individual may experience shortness of breath. High blood pressure that resists stabilization may be present. Kidney disease symptoms usually do not present until the damage is severe; early kidney disease is often symptomless.
Physicians use an annual urine microalbumin test to measure the amounts of the protein albumin present in urine to determine how effectively the kidneys are functioning, explains Mayo Clinic. In early kidney disorders, small amounts of albumin appear in the blood. In advanced stages, large amounts of protein are present because the damaged kidneys can no longer filter waste from the blood, allowing the protein that normally resides in the blood to flow into the urine. Collecting urine for 24 hours is the most effective test to render the most reliable measurement of protein in the urine.