Some side effects that can follow a tubal ligation procedure include light vaginal bleeding and excessive gas within the first couple days, according to WebMD. Although tubal ligation is a birth control method, it is not 100 percent effective. In five out of 1,000 cases per year, a woman becomes pregnant within the first year following a tubal ligation; in five years, 13 out of 1,000 women become pregnant.
Major complications to tubal ligations are not common, according to WebMD. However, minor complications include infection and wound separation. In rare cases, the bowels or bladder are injured during the surgery. Some other rare, but serious complications include major blood loss, problems with anesthesia and the need for a larger laparotomy incision site during the procedure. Women who are overweight, smoke, have diabetes or have a heart condition are at greater risk for complications.
If the tubal ligation fails, there is also an increased risk of an ectopic pregnancy, according to WebMD. The risk is greatest three years or more after the procedure. Tubal ligation is a permanent method of birth control, but it does not affect the menstrual cycle. Periods continue as usual after a tubal ligation, as does the transition to menopause.