Possible side effects of colonoscopy include bleeding, inflamed abdominal cavity lining, bloating, rectal irritation and vomiting, according to Florida Hospital. Patients should contact their doctor immediately if they experience excessive rectal bleeding, severe abdominal pain, fever or chills following a colonoscopy, advises WebMD.
Colonoscopy is used to screen for colorectal cancer. It helps to detect and diagnose abnormalities inside the colon. To prepare for the procedure, patients follow diet and fluid restrictions and take an oral laxative to ensure that the gastrointestinal tract is clear of waste, states WebMD. During colonoscopy, doctors use a colonoscope to examine the colon and remove small amount of tissue for analysis.