Some possible side effects of bladder surgery include urination difficulties, urinary tract infections, an overactive bladder and painful intercourse, explains Mayo Clinic. There are complications as well, such as the possibility that the material used in the surgery erodes or infection sets into the bladder.
Some side effects, such as urination difficulties and urinary tract infections, are temporary and treatable, states Mayo Clinic. The patient should talk to the doctor about the other side effects and discuss all options before surgery.
Bladder surgery to treat cancer has different side effects depending on the type of surgery, according to the American Cancer Society. Transurethral surgery is done through the urethra so that there are no incisions into the bladder or abdomen. Side effects can include frequent urination, incontinence and bleeding, the latter of which is temporary.
In a cystectomy, the bladder or part of the bladder containing the cancer is removed, says the American Cancer Society. Side effects are more severe, resulting in bleeding, possible infections, bladder stones, incontinence and urine blockage. This surgery can also have sexual side effects. For instance, men no longer produce semen, although they can still orgasm. Because part of the vagina is removed, sexual intercourse can be uncomfortable for women.