Rubbing alcohol and vinegar mixtures and other home remedies do not always kill head lice and their eggs; over-the-counter medications are preferred for treating infested persons, according to Harvard Medical School. Those containing permethrin or pyrethrins specifically target active lice and their eggs.
Most lice treatments are applied seven to 10 days apart and require combing the hair with a fine-toothed comb. In the event the head lice are resistant to the active ingredients, stronger prescriptions drugs such as malathion and lindane may be needed.
Unlike other treatments, the prescription drug Natroba does not require combing. Clinical trials of the medication indicated that of 552 children with head lice, 86 percent were lice-free after just one or two treatments, cite Harvard medical experts.