Risks of artificial insemination include possible bacterial or viral infection in the uterus from the introduction of tools and specimen, as well as discomfort when the speculum or the catheter or tools used to hold the cervix in place are inserted, according to NW Cryobank. While the discomfort is mild and safe, the infection is more serious but rare, only occurring in 0.2 percent of cases. Other side effects include cramping after the procedure, which is more common if the semen sample contained prostaglandin hormones.
To prevent infections caused by semen specimens, the sperm donor can undergo testing to ensure that his sample contains no pathogenic organisms, as detailed by the NW Cryobank. This testing is so rigorous and regulated that there are no documented cases of HIV being present in a quarantined sperm sample.
The two different forms of artificial inseminations involve either placing the specimen in the vaginal canal or in the uterus. Each process can carry different risks and side effects, and they also call for certain procedures in order to prevent those side effects. For example, if the specimen is placed in the uterus, the specimen must be washed through a special process in order to "clean" it of extra fluids. These extra fluids contain prostaglandin hormones, which can cause severe cramping if inserted into the uterus.