A rectocele surgery is done to repair a bulge or other defect in the rear wall of the vagina and front wall of the rectum, according to the American Society of Colon & Rectal Surgeons. The condition can be caused by factors such as difficult childbirth, previous pelvic surgery or congenital occurrence.
Surgical treatment of a rectocele should only be done when the condition is significantly affecting the patient's quality of life, according to the American Society of Colon & Rectal Surgeons. The surgery is done vaginally, rectally or abdominally, depending on the size and severity of the rectocele. Mesh or surrounding tissues are sometimes used to strengthen the area in an attempt to prevent future problems.