Endurance athletes should aim to have 1.2 grams to 1.4 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight each day, according to About.com. Strength-training athletes should strive for 1.4 grams to 1.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. A kilogram is equal to approximately 2.2 pounds.
Athletes need protein to repair and rebuild muscle tissue that breaks down during a workout, states About.com. A long-distance runner can eat four 3-ounce servings of fish, chicken, beef or cheese, which contain 21 grams of protein each, to meet his protein needs. A bodybuilder can meet his daily protein needs with five 3-ounce servings.