Causes of post-menopausal spotting include hormone therapy, noncancerous polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial atrophy and certain medications such as blood thinners, states WebMD. Post-menopausal bleeding may also indicate uterine cancer or a cervical or uterine infection. Such spotting is abnormal and requires immediate medical attention, as underlying causes are usually serious.
Menopause is the phase of a woman's life where she stops having her menstrual cycles, states Healthline. Its perimenopausal stage, which lasts a number of years, still has irregular periods. For a woman to be in the post-menopausal stage, she needs to have missed her menstrual cycles for a period of one year or longer.
When a woman has post-menopausal bleeding, doctors look over her medical history and conduct physical examinations and some tests to determine its cause, explains WebMD. These tests include a saline-infused sonogram, endometrial biopsy, transvaginal ultrasound, hysteroscopy, and dilation and curettage, also known as D&C .
Treatment for post-menopausal bleeding depends on the cause although some bleeding does not require it and clears up on its own, adds Healthline. Treatments for noncancerous causes are successful and include estrogen creams, the surgical removal of polyps and hormone replacement therapy with progestin. For uterine cancer, treatment options include hysterectomy, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.