A quadruple bypass surgery is a type of heart surgery that involves routing the flow of blood around four separate blockages or obstructions in the heart, according to Mayo Clinic. During the procedure, healthy veins are taken from elsewhere in the body and used to bypass the four obstructions. The number of bypasses is determined by the number of obstructions; for example, a double bypass involves two obstructions while a triple bypass involves three.
During a quadruple bypass, the patient is put under anesthesia, and a breathing tube is inserted that is attached to a ventilator. This tube breathes for the patient during the surgery and for a period of time after the surgery. The quadruple coronary bypass is a major procedure.
During the procedure, veins are taken from the mammary artery or from the lower leg, and then a long incision is made in the chest wall, the rib cage is opened and the heart is exposed and stopped temporarily. The action of the heart is taken over by a special machine that circulates the blood while the surgeon works to repair the heart and make the necessary bypasses by attaching the arteries that were harvested below and above the obstruction, allowing for the optimal flow of blood to be restored.